Children With Special Needs Notes PDF

B.ed Notes- Are you looking for B.ed notes for the 1st & 2nd year? Are you searching for b.ed notes on children with special needs pdf? What are the types of children with special needs? You will get complete information on children with special needs for free.

Children with special needs are an important part of the B.ed course. It is quite important to understand the concept behind the topics. 

Children With Special Needs Notes PDF

Understanding Children With Special Needs

A physical disability is a physical condition that affects a person’s mobility, physical capacity, or stamina. It could be any one of a number of physical conditions that significantly impact a person’s ability to perform daily activities. It may be from birth or due to any disease or accident.

Hearing is the ability to perceive sound. Hearing impairment is the inability to perceive sounds through the ear. It is caused due to damage to any part of the ear which blocks the transmission of sound. Hearing impairment refers to any defect in or damage to the hearing mechanism. It may range in severity from mild to moderate to profound. Complete deafness is the condition where the person cannot hear even with the use of hearing instruments or technologies. It affects their capacity to understand language or speech.

Visual impairment means a weakness or defect in the power of seeing. Visually impaired children are those who had problems with vision. These include blind, one-eyed, and low vision. Depending upon the degree of loss of vision they may be partially sighted or blind. This may happen due to any disease or an accident causing harm to eye parts.

Children with speech disorders are those who have problems in voice rhythm and articulations. It so happens either due to their defective speech organs or due to a lack of proper habit formation. There are different types of speech disorders i.e. voice disorder, articulation disorder, and fluency disorder

They are also known as children with locomotors disabilities. A person with a locomotor disability has limited movement of body parts. They have paralysis in the upper or lower limbs. They are unable to use their arms or legs like others. It happens due to problems in the functioning of bones, joints, and limbs.

It includes children who have poor physical conditions and require special health precautions at home or at school. Epilepsy, diabetic problems, asthma, pain in the joints, and anemia are some of this type.

Multiple handicaps refer to more than one handicap in the child. A child may be blind and deaf, blind and orthopedically disabled, deaf and orthopedically handicapped, etc.


Socially marginalized or disabled means the persons who are not socially treated as competent as others i.e. those who are not treated as capable by society and have been marginalized or discriminated by society.

1) Girls

Girls have remained socially disadvantaged for a long time. Girls suffer in almost all aspects of their life. Literacy and education are basic human rights which are still sometimes denied to girls. They face inequality in nutrition, healthcare, employment, etc.


Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes are among the most disadvantaged socio-economic groups in India. They are discriminated against on the basis of the caste system.

 Dalits do not refer to caste but suggest a group that is in a state of oppression, social disability, and who are helpless and poor. Scheduled tribes are a product of marginalization based on ethnicity.
the marginalization of SC s and STs influence all spheres of their life, violating basic human rights such as civil, political, social, economic, and cultural rights. Literacy rates among them are very low.

3) Minorities

Minority means less in number. Minority groups refer to the people who are discriminated against or marginalized because they are small in number. This group may be formed on the basis of language, religion, culture, or geographical conditions. 

Being a minority, they are deprived of getting facilities equal to all others of society. The children of such groups have some special needs which are to be addressed by education. Greater attention will be paid to the education of these groups in the interest of equality and social justice.


An emotional disability is a disability that impacts a person's ability to recognize, interpret, control, and express fundamental emotions. It is an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. 

It is an inability to maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. The child shows inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.

1) Anxiety disorder
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear. We all experience anxiety from time to time but for many people including children, anxiety can be excessive, persistent, and uncontrollable. It affects their daily life activities.

2) Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is a serious medical condition that causes dramatic mood swings from overly high irritable to sad and hopeless and then back again, often with periods of normal mood in between.

3) Conduct disorder

Conduct disorder is a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in children and adolescents in which the rights of others or the basic social rules are violated. It usually begins during childhood or adolescence. 

Children and adolescents with the disorder have a difficult time following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. They may display aggressive, destructive behaviors, disobedience, irresponsibility, anger, etc.

4) Psychotic Disorder

It refers to several mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. Two of the main symptoms are delusions and hallucinations. 

Delusions are false beliefs, such as thinking that someone is plotting against you. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling something that is not there.

5) Personality disorder

Feeling of inferiority, self-consciousness, social withdrawal, seldom smiles, depression, etc. It is a mental disorder in which a person has a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking.

D) Cognitive:-
These are the persons who need special attention due to their cognitive functioning.

1) Mentally retarded

Mentally retarded is due to the retardation of the normal growth, development, and functioning of their mental capacities. It is a condition of incomplete development of mind. 

Children with mental retardation learn more slowly than other children, have more difficulty in solving problems, and show language and communication deficits. They are unable to behave like others and to understand abstract concepts.
A) Physically disabled

1) Hearing impairment

The hearing aid is very essential for the learning of impaired children for their further training and education. But hearing aid should be selected according to the degree of hearing loss. Sign language should be taught to them. They require auditory training to differentiate one voice from another. The lips of teachers should be visible to the children so that they can be able to supplement listening by the lip reading.

2) Visually impaired

Partially sighted children need to be encouraged to use their remaining sight as much as possible. They need large print materials and
3) Speech disorders

Those children who have mild speech disorders can be integrated directly. They need the attention of parents and teachers during the early years for their correction through habit formation. Some children with major speech disorders need resource room facilities. They should be encouraged to practice their communication skills in a natural situation.

4) Orthopedically handicapped

They need wheelchairs, crutches, braces, handrails. Their seating arrangement should be done accordingly. The steps of classroom verandas should be constructed in such a way that these children can enter into the class without the help of other children. The physical environment should be adapted in such a way that they can participate actively with their normal friends in different co-curricular activities. They need supportive materials like artificial limbs, lap boards, page-turner, and thick pencils, etc.

B) Social:-

1) Girls
* Close relationship between the school and community.
* Incentives.
* Change in the negative attitude of parents.
* Relevant curriculum design.
* Posting of female teachers.
* Equal participation in all activities.
* Self-defence training.
* Girl friendly environment.

2) SC, ST & Minorities

* Incentives for families to send their children to school
* Social awareness
* Teacher recruitment from their categories
* Mother tongue-based multilingual education
* Availability of textbook and other learning materials in minority languages
* Remedial classes
* To be perceived as competent

C) Cognitive:-

1) Mentally retarded
Those having problems in learning need repetition of instructions. Some need to be trained in vocational areas and daily living skills. Supportive aids to be provided to the students to learn the concept. Co-curricular activities should be organized to facilitate eye-hand coordination. Pupil's interest should be taken into account for choosing learning activities. Group activities should be encouraged for better social development of such children. They should be encouraged to do their work independently.

2) Learning disabled

The mild learning disability can be educated with little attention. They face problems in basic academic skills in one or more learning areas. With some adjustment and adaptation in the curriculum, they can be educated in regular classes. Severely learning disabled need intensive remedial exercises.

3) Gifted children

Their independent study habits need to be encouraged. They need extra assignments and programs for the development of their creative ability. 

They should be provided with proper opportunities for developing their talent. They should be encouraged to gain new experiences. They need appreciation for their works. 

They have a need to get knowledge, to satisfy the interest, self-expression and creativity. They need to be given scope for their fullest development.

Children With Special Needs Notes PDF

Children With Special Needs Notes PDF

Children With Special Needs Notes PDF

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