B.ed Notes on Communication PDF

B.ed Notes on Communication PDF -Communication is an aspect that every human should know. That's why it has a part in bachelor's education as well. Giving below the communication in detail.

What is Communication- The word communication comes from the Latin word “communicate” or “communist” which means to make every day. Communication means to make familiar facts, thoughts, information, and requirements. So, Communication is the interchange of ideas, information, message, etc. by way of speech, writing, or signal.

Characteristics of Communication-

  1. Exchange of Ideas: There must be an exchange of ideas, information, feelings, etc., among two or more two persons.
  2. Two or More Persons: Minimum of at least two persons require, i.e., the sender of the message and the receiver.
  3. Mutual Understanding: The receiver should receive the information in the same manner in which it is being given.
  4. Continuous Process: Communication is a continuous process. It never stops.
  5. Use of Words as well as Symbols: There can be many means of communication, like oral, written, and symbolic

Sender: The sender is the person who sends the message. The message may be a thought, idea, symbol, picture report, or order and postures and gestures, even a momentary smile. The sender is the creator of the message.

Message: It is the information the sender needs to convey to the receiver. The data transmitted by words as in speech and write-ups, pictures, signs, or symbols are depending upon the situation.

Encoding: Encoding is transforming the message into an appropriate medium which may be verbal or non-verbal depending upon the situation, space, time, and nature of the message to be sent to the intended receiver. The sender encodes the message into a series of words, symbols, or pictures.

Media: Media refers to the channel or medium through which the message is transmitted. The message may be written or oral, and it may be sent via a computer, telephone, cell phone, apps or televisions, etc

Receiver: The receiver is the person or group of person who is receiving the message. He is at the other end of the process. He may be a listener, viewer, or reader. He needs to decode the message sent in the best possible manner such that the real intent of the communication is attained.

Decoding: Decoding refers to interpreting or comprehending the sent message. The receiver interprets the message and tries to understand it in the best possible manner.

Feedback: It is the reply given by the receiver after reading the message. It is necessary to ensure that the message has been correctly decoded and comprehended the way it was sent.


  1. It means the exchange of ideas.
  2. It involves the sender, message, medium, channel, receiver, response, and feedback.
  3. Berlo explains communication as the S-R model or the Sender-Receiver model. In this sender stands for stimulus and the receiver stands for a response.
  4. This explanation of Berlo was later extended to the S-M-C-R model. It stands for Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver.
  5. It could be verbal and non-verbal.
  6. The sender encodes the message and sends it to the receiver through a medium. The receiver decodes the message and sends feedback through a medium

a. Classification on the basis of the relationship element

(i) Intrapersonal communication

It is communication inside an individual on practically every one of the occasions, including conversing with oneself, turning in to oneself, and relating one to oneself.

It includes individual reflection, mediation contemplation and even praying to God. We conceptualize and formulate our thoughts or ideas before we actually indulge in overt communication.

(ii) Interpersonal communication

  1. It is also named dyadic communication.
  2. It is an all-inclusive type of close and personal routine communication between two individuals, both sending and receiving the message.
  3. It may be formal or informal, verbal or non-verbal. It takes place anywhere by means of words, sounds, facial expressions, gestures and postures.
  4. It is an effective communication process as you can get immediate feedback. It has greater scope for grapevine.
  5. Due to the proximity between the sender and the receiver, interpersonal communication has emotional appeal too.

(iii) Group communication

  • Group communication situations are quite common in day-to-day life.
  • A group is a number of people that has a common goal, interact with one another to attain the goal, recognize one another’s existence, and see themselves as part of the group.
  • Characteristics of the group in relation to an individual are on the basis of membership, dependence, acceptance, attraction, volition, innate pressure, change and flexibility and leadership.
  • Group communication is influenced by several heterogeneous factors, like age, sex, education, economic, social, linguistic, religious, national, regional and racial differences.
  • Group communication is viewed as effective as it gives a chance to coordinate connection among the individuals of the group and it helps in bringing about changes in attitudes and beliefs.

(iv) Mass communication

Mass correspondence and broad communications are for the most part thought to be synonymous.

At a different level, mass communication has three characteristics:

(i) The audience is large and heterogeneous: Radio and television are assumed to have a larger audience in comparison to the newspaper.

(ii) The source is a foundation or a gathering of individuals.

(iii) Some kind of mechanism is used to reproduce information. It is also termed as mediated communication.

Channels for mass communication are termed as mass media. Example of mass media includes radio, TV, newspapers, magazines and films.

b. Communication on the basis of Expression

(i). Verbal communication

Verbal means the use of words in the communication process and in the design and formulation of messages. In verbal communication, the message is transmitted verbally, i.e. by making use of words, such as oral and written.

Verbal communication is further divided into the following types:

1. Oral Communication: In oral correspondence, verbally expressed words are utilized. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television and voice over the internet. Oral communication is influenced by the following factors:

Pitch & Volume


The clarity in Speaking & Articulation

2. Written communication: In written communication, written signs and symbols, both in printed or handwritten form can be used.

Pictures, graphs, etc. are used to complement the written text.

The communicator’s writing skills, style, and knowledge of grammar affect the quality of the message.

In written communication, the message can be transmitted through email, letter, report, memo etc.

This is the most commonly used communication in a business organization.

(ii). Non-verbal communication

  • It is the procedure of communication through sending and accepting silent messages.
  • There is a famous quote, ‘action speaks louder than words’. Here action stands for our body movements.
  • This communication is all about the body language of the speaker and does not make use of words.
  • Communication, other than body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions is called non-verbal communication.

c. Classification based on purpose and style

(i) Formal Communication

  1. In formal communication, certain rules, regulations, convention,s and protocols are followed while formulating and communicating a message.
  2. It follows an organizational structure.
  3. It tends to be upwards or downwards crosswise over the chain of importance or expert lines.
  4. In the formal communication, the use of the right language and correct pronunciation is required.

(ii) Informal communication:

  • Informal communication channels exist along with formal communication channels in any organization.
  • It primarily addresses the social needs of the students.
  • It is relational and essentially up close and personal and with utilization of body signals.
  • It happens among friends and family.
  • In informal communication, there are no formal rules and regulations for communication.
  • It is termed as grapevine.

d. Communication on the basis of direction

a. Vertical Communication:

  • This is fundamentally formal communication.
  • This can be upwards (base up) and downwards (top base).

b. Lateral communication:

Communication with individuals at the same level in the chain of command that are companions and partners is named as lateral communication.

This may join both formal and informal communications.

c. Diagonal Communication:

Diagonal Communication is effective as hierarchical buildings are removed and there is a free flow of information, cutting across positions or statuses.

It encourages building relationships between the superior and the subordinate.

Barriers of Communication

1. Physical Barriers

• Noise

 • Invisibility and poor audibility

• Environmental and physical discomfort

 •Distractionill health

2. Language Barriers

• Verbalism

 • Verbosity (usage of words or phrases that are beyond the scope of your audience's knowledge)

 • Unclear graphics and symbols

3. Background Barriers

• Previous learning.

• Cultural disparities.

 4. Psychological Barriers

• Prejudices

 • Disinterest

 • Inattention

 • Redundancy

 • Imperceptions

 • Unrewarding experiences

 • Filling of anxiety

 • Unfulfilled curiosity

 Tips to make classroom communication successful and productive 

 • Understand the subject matter yourself before trying to communicate it to the students.

 • Understand the nature of your students.

 • Choose a presentation style fit to the subject matter and the audience.

 • Develop sentence that are clear, concise and complete.

 • Use correct spelling, pronunciation etc.

 • Be aware of all the barriers of communication.



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