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Function Formula Example
 To add up the total =SUM(cell range) = SUM(B2:B9)
 To add individual items =Value1 + Value 2 =B2+C2
 Subtract =Value1  Value 2 =B2C2
 Multiply =Value1 * Value2 =B2*C2
 Divide =Value1 / Value2 =B2/C2
 Exponents =Value1 ^ Value2 =B2^C2
 Average =AVERAGE(cell range) =AVERAGE(B2:B9)
 Median =MEDIAN(cell range) =MEDIAN(B2:B9)
 Max =MAX(cell range) =MAX(B2:B9)
 Min =MIN(cell range) =MIN(B2:B9)
Absolute cell references
When a formula contains an absolute reference, no matter which cell the formula
occupies the cell reference does not change: if you copy or move the formula, it refers
to the same cell as it did in its original location. In an absolute reference, each part of
the reference (the letter that refers to the row and the number that refers to the column)
is preceded by a “$” – for example, $A$1 is an absolute reference to cell A1. Wherever
the formula is copied or moved, it always refers to cell A1.
Conditional statements
Funtion 
Formula 
Example 
If statement 
=IF(logical test, “result if the test answer is true”, “result if the
test answer is false”) 
=IF(B2>69,” Pass”,” Fail”) 
Exact 
=EXACT(Value1, value2) 
=EXACT(B2, C2) 
Lookup Within a Range
Formula 
Function 
Example 
Function Formula Example Looks up a value in the leftmost column and returns a value in the same row of the column you specify.

=VLOOKUP(value, table, output column, find closest match?) 
=VLOOKUP(A2, $C$2:$D$6, 2,TRUE 
0 F
60 D
70 C
80 B
90 A
Pulling things apart
Function
To select a certain number
of characters from the left
Formula
=LEFT(cellwithtext,
number of characters to be
returned)
Example
=LEFT(A2, 6)
To select a certain number
of characters from the right
=RIGHT(cellwithtext,
number of characters to be
returned)
=RIGHT(A2, 6)
Extract information from
the middle
=MID(cellwithtext, start
position, number of
characters you want
returned)
=MID(A2, 9, 4)
Find text in a field =SEARCH(“text you want
to find”, where you want to
find it)
=SEARCH(“,”, A2)
Separate a last name
(Example: Smith, Jane)
LEFT and SEARCH
functions
=LEFT(A2, SEARCH(“,”,
A2)1)
Separate a first name
(Example: Smith, Jane)
MID and SEARCH
functions
=MID(A2, SEARCH(“,”,
A2)+2, 20)
Putting things together
Function Formula Example
To combine cells with a
space inbetween
=CONCATENATE(text, “ ”,
text)
=CONCATENATE(A2, “ “,
B2)
To combine cells with a
space inbetween (second
option)
=text & “ “ & text =A2 & “ “ & B2
Dealing with dates
Function Formula Example
Return the year =YEAR(datefield) =YEAR(A2)
Return the month =MONTH(datefield) =MONTH(A2)
Return the day =DAY(datefield) =DAY(A2)
Return the day of the week
(1 = Sunday, 2 = Monday,
3 = Tuesday, etc.)
=WEEKDAY(datefield) =WEEKDAY(A2)
To create a date from year,
month, and day
=DATE(year, month, day) =DATE(B2, C2, D2)