Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development PDF Download

Piaget Theory- Are you looking for Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development notes then you are in the right place. Today you will get complete notes on Jean Piaget's theory, so stay tuned. Jean Piaget studied the growth and development of the child. Jean Piaget's theory is one of the influential theories of all time. The main objective of Piaget has described the process of human thinking from infancy to adulthood. Jean Piaget has redefined intelligence, knowledge and the relationship of the learner to the environment system is a continuing process that creates structures.
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Jean Piaget's Theory- He pointed out that knowledge is an interactive process between the learner and the environment. According to him, learning is a function of certain processes. They are assimilation, accommodation, adaptation, and equilibration. 

Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development PDF

Four Process of Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Approach to Learning
  1. Assimilation
  2. Accommodation
  3. Equilibration
  4. Adaptation

1- Assimilation

It is incorporating new objects and experiences into the existing schemata. In this context, a schema refers to well-defined sequences of actions. The observation of surroundings and process leads to assimilation in the early stages of learning. Thus, assimilation accounts for the children's ability to act on and understand something new in terms of what is already familiar. 


Accommodation is the adjustment of internal structures to the particular characteristics of situations. For example, biological structures accommodate the type and quantity of food at the same time that the food is being assimilated. As the child continues to confront experiences in the environment, he has either to combine his previous schemata and arrive at new schemata known as accommodation. 

3- Equilibration

In cognitive development, equilibration is the continuing self-regulation that permits the individual to grow, develop and change while maintaining stability. Equilibration is not a balance of forces but it is a dynamic process that continuously regulates behavior. It indicates the balance between assimilation and accommodation. 


The accommodation helps in combining or expanding or changing the new schemata based on his new experiences. Thus, the individual is helped in adjusting to his new environment. This adjustment to a new environment is given the name 'Adaptation'. 

Various Stages of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Approach to Learning

  1. Sensory-Motor Stage
  2. Preoperational Stage
  3. Concrete Operations Stage
  4. Formal Operations Stage

1- Sensory-Motor Stage (0-2 Years)

This extends roughly from birth to age. As the name implies the schemata that develop during this stage are those involving the child's perception of the world.
  • The child forms his most basic conceptions about the nature of the materials world
  • The child learns that an object that has disappeared can reappear
  • The child learns that some object even though it looks very different when seen from different angles or in different illuminations.
  • He relates the appearance sound to touch the object to one another.

2- Preoperational Stage (2-7)

  • The child has internal representations of objects before he has words to express them. These internal representations give the child greater flexibility for dealing adaptively with the world.
  • The child begins to exhibit the effects of having learned the language.
  • He is able to represent objects and events symbolically.

3- Concrete Operations Stage (7-11)

The child in the stage of concrete operations can deal with the relationships among hierarchies of terms such as Robin, bird, and creature. He is aware of the preoperational child. 

4- Formal Operations Stage (11 years)

It includes improvements in abstract thinking.
  • Now the person can view the issues abstractly
  • The person can judge the validity of logical argument in terms of their formal structure, independent of content. 
  • He can explore different ways of formulating problems and see hat their logical consequences are.

Educational Implication of Jean Piaget's Cognitive approach

  • Piaget's description of cognition indicates that cognitive development is a continuous process from birth to adulthood.
  • It is accepted that childhood is a necessary and important phase in the development of logical thinking.
  • It is accepted that the relationship between the educational system and the child is a unilateral and reciprocal one.
  • Active methods that require the students to rediscover or reconstruct to be learned should be used.
  • Experimental procedures and free activity through training should be introduced for liberal arts and science students.
  • Science and Mathematics are taught ith actions and operations
  • The classroom should be a center of real activities carried out in common so that logical intelligence may be elaborated through action and social change. 
  • Give and take can be developed in the group
  • Audio-video aids can be utilized as accessories
  • Students must be allowed to make mistakes and solved themselves.
  • The process of experimentation by students of all ages is important.
  • Various activities in pre-school curricula can provide opportunities for cognitive development.
  • Classroom activities should maximize the child's opportunities to construct and coordinate many relationships.
  • Drill and practice should be given in the classroom to make teaching-learning effective.

The Best Book For Childhood and Growing Up

The Best Book For Childhood and Growing Up

Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development PDF Download

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